STAGE 4. Selecting the theoretical approach
What steps should be completed?
Step 1: Select the theoretical approach or approaches on which the intervention will be based
Social inclusion programmes for people with drug dependence have little theoretical-conceptual development, and often do not include references to the theoretical model (approach) on which they are based or to the evidence that justifies the use of certain intervention strategies. This is explained by difficulties in conceptualising the processes of social exclusion-inclusion, by the absence of the programme’s own models (approaches) to explain the processes behind the situations of drug addicts’ social exclusion and factors that facilitate or impede their social inclusion, and also because social inclusion is considered by many institutions and professionals to be inherent in the treatment. This does not preclude identifying certain conceptual references implicit in these programmes, as follows:
Development of the theoretical approaches to the processes of exclusion and social inclusion of socially disadvantaged collectives or social groups can be summarised in the transition from models (approaches) based on total segregation (where isolation of people with integration difficulties in closed institutions is the prototypical response), towards psychosocial and sociostructural models (approaches). This transition towards proposals for community integration implies recognition of the fact that it is not enough to put integration policies in place that induce change in people, but that change is also necessary in the social organisation that facilitates people’s active social participation.3 The theoretical models (approaches) that have the greatest influence in support of social inclusion programmes include:
1 Subirats J, Gomà R, Brugué J. (2005). Análisis de los factores de exclusión social. Madrid: Fundación BBVA e Instituto de Estudios Económicos de la Generalitat de Cataluña.
2 Tomas B. (2001). Möglichkeiten und Grenzen sozialer Integration von SuchtmittelkonsumentInnen –Erfahrungen aus der Praxis. Tagungsband der Enquete Wirkungskreise – Was wirkt in der ambulanten Suchttherapie? Was braucht ambulante Suchttherapie um zu wirken? Viena: Verein Dialog : 56–64.
3 Sánchez L. (1992). Los límites de la intervención social. Revista Intervención Psicosocial, 2: 73-82.
© COPOLAD. Cooperation Programme between Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union on Drugs Policies.